"Dr. Shafer serves as Associate Administrator for National Programs in the USDA Agricultural Research Service. In this position, he is the senior leader and manager for planning, prioritizing, and budgeting ARS’ comprehensive agricultural research programs. During 1998-2013, he held several positions in administration and leadership of science programs in USDA, including Senior Advisor for Climate Science in the Office of the Chief Scientist, and ARS National Program Leader for Global Change research. During 1983-1997, he was a Research Plant Pathologist in ARS’ Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Research Unit at Raleigh, NC, with concurrent faculty appointment in the Plant Pathology and Soil Science departments at North Carolina State University. His research focused on interactions of air quality with plants, pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms, and soils. He received B.S. Agr. and M.S. degrees from The Ohio State University and a Ph.D. from North Carolina State University, all in plant pathology."