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Energy Table


It is a generational challenge to meet the world’s energy requirements, while remaining within the bounds of acceptable costs and environmental impacts. To this end, substantial research has explored various energy futures on a global scale, leaving decision-makers and the public overwhelmed by information on energy options.

This interactive energy table was developed as a comprehensive resource through which users can explore the availability, scalability, costs and growth potentials of many energy sources and technologies currently in use or development. Energy sources include coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind, hydropower, ocean, geothermal and biomass. Each cell in the table provides data from recent peer reviewed publications and major institutional reports (such as the International Energy Administration), with full references provided. Additional information is available on technology costs, technical considerations, imminent breakthroughs, obstacles to integration, as well as political, social, and environmental considerations.

Table Features


Still have questions? Learn more by referring directly to source data, cited in every cell.

Comprehensive References List
Convert Energy Units


The idea for a comprehensive total primary energy table was introduced by David Criswell at a 1998 AGCI workshop on carbon free energy at the terawatt scale (Workshop Information). This interactive table concept was developed by AGCI and brought to fruition by Steve Davis, Erin Delman and Geoff Bernd at the University of California at Irvine. Data has been updated in collaboration with Kaihui Song of the Ming Xu Lab at the University of Michigan School for Environment and Sustainability (SEAS). Video resources are provided by Near Zero, the Caldeira Lab at Carnegie Institute for Global Ecology, and AGCI workshops.


University of California, Irvine

Steven J. Davis, Erin Delman, & Geoff Bernd,
Department of Earth System Science

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Ming Xu & Kaihui Song,
School for Environment and Sustainability (SEAS)



Aspen Global Change Institute

University of California at Irvine

Near Zero

Carnegie Institute for Global Ecology

Concept Design

John Katzenberger, Aspen Global Change Institute

Table Development & Implementation

Seth Nickell, Near Zero creative agency