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AGCI Interactive Energy Table

  1. Sum of hard coal, soft coal, and peat; data in 2014 [WEC, 2017a; WEC, 2013a; ]

  2. From 1035012 million tons of coal (proved reserves), equivalent to 8426032.692 TWh, latest data in June, 2018 [BP, 2018a]

  3. Data in 2017, Inclusive of CHP, Supercritical and SUbcritical production [IEA, 2018a]

  4. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  5. From 3731.5 million TOE; data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  6. Data in 2018 upto November [EIA, 2018e]

  7. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  8. Installed coal-fired generating capacity (GW) growth rate 0.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018g]

  9. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  10. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2019a]

  11. Data in 2018, vary based on technology [EIA, 2018s]

  12. Data in 2018, Upper bound is for coal with 90% CCS which is projected to come online in 2021 [EIA, 2019a]

  13. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  14. Data in 2018, Corresponds to advanced coal with 90% CCS expected to come online in 2021 [EIA, 2019]

  15. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  16. In 2016 dollars for coal with 90% CCS[NREL, 2018]

  17. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  18. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  19. From 65 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  20. From 17,713,376 million tons of hard coal resource; data in 2014. [WEC, 2017a]

  21. From 718310 million tons of hard coal (proved reserves), equivalent to 5847761.71 TWh; latest data in June, 2018 [BP, 2018a]

  22. From Sub-bituminous coal (649513kt), Lignite (539433kt), total to 1188946 kt (9679.21 TWh), electricity efficiency 0.33, equivalent to 3226 TWh in 2014 [EIA, 2018b]

  23. From 14,519,515TJ (Anthracite) + 33,733,135TJ (Metallurgical Coal) + 81,334,804TJ (Bituminous) = 129587454TJ, data in 2014 [EIA, 2018d]

  24. Data in 2017, by calculation; coking coal and steam coal [IEA, 2018g]

  25. From 65-80 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  26. From 65-80 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  27. Projected to 2040 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  28. From 4,418,658 million tons of soft coal resource; data in 2014. [WEC, 2017a]

  29. From 316702 million tons of soft coal (proved reserves), equivalent to 2578270.98 TWh, latest data in June, 2018 [BP, 2018a]

  30. Subbituminous(25,082,899TJ)+Lignite(10,937,540TJ) = 36,020,439 TJ, equivalent to 10,006 TWh, data in 2014 [EIA, 2018c]

  31. From 25,082,899TJ(subbituminous) + 10,937,540TJ (lignite) = 36020439TJ, data in 2014. [EIA, 2018d]

  32. Data in 2017, by calculation; lignite [IEA, 2018g]

  33. From 38-52 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  34. From 38-52 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  35. From upper end of total peat in situ range of 6,000-13,800 billion m3. Conversion is referred to (Virtanen, 2012) that 23.7 billion m3 of energy peat reserve in situ contents energy 12 800 TWh. [WEC, 2013a; Kimmo Virtanen, 2012]

  36. From 0.3 trillion tons, conversion 20-23 MJ/kg peat. [Fuchsman, 2012; FAO, 1988]

  37. From 3535kt (28.78 TWh), electricity efficiency 0.33, equivalent to 9.6 TWh, data in 2014 [IEA, 2018b]

  38. From 15.2Mt, data in 2014. [IEA, 2014]

  39. Data in 2016, by calculation [IEA, 2018g]

  40. Sum of conventiol crude, tar sands, tight oil, and oil shale

  41. From 18.4 ZJ of oil (world proven)[Thakur, 2016]

  42. Data for 2015-2030 [IEA, 2015b]

  43. Data in 2014 [IEA, 2016]

  44. From 4621.9 MTOE, data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  45. Data in 2018 upto November, for US; 14.0% for Steam Turbine, 2.53% for Combustion Turbine [EIA, 2018e]

  46. Data in 2016, by calculation [IEA, 2017c]

  47. Installed liquids-fired generating capacity (GW) growth rate -1.1%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018h]

  48. From 18.27 (2015$/MMBtu), data in 2015 [EIA, 2016b]

  49. From 18.27 (2015$/MMBtu), data in 2015 [EIA, 2016b]

  50. From 18.05-23.49$(2015)/MMBtu, data in 2015. [IEA, 2018o]

  51. From 18.05-23.49$(2015)/MMBtu, data in 2015. [IEA, 2018o]

  52. From 3.1 trillion barrels (including initial, proven and probable reserves), equivalent to 5,268,160 TWh. [IEA, 2013a]

  53. From 1696.6 thousand million barrels of conventiol crude (proved reserves); data in end of 2017. [BP, 2018b]

  54. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  55. From 95.24-96.83 mb/d, data in 2016 [IEA, 2018e]

  56. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  57. Crude oil /a production growth rate 0.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018i]

  58. From $45-115/bbl, in 2014-2015 [EIA, 2015b]

  59. From $45-115/bbl, in 2014-2015 [EIA, 2015b]

  60. From $95/bbl (nomil $), projected to 2030 [EIA, 2007]

  61. It is estimated that over 2 trillion barrels (equilavlent to ~3,398,800 TWh) of oil reserves exist in the form of tar sands, although not all of these resources are economically or technically recoverable; data in 2015. [Robert Strauss Center, UT Austin, 2015]

  62. From ~600 billion barrels [Speight, 2016]

  63. From oil shale and oil sands 14,973 kt, data in 2014 [IEA, 2018b]

  64. From 635000 barrels per day (Venezuela+Madagascar+US), in 2015 [Tarsanworld, 2017]

  65. Production growth rate. From Over the 15-year period CAPP sees crude oil production rising by 1.1 million b/d from 3.852 million b/d in 2015 (actual) to 4.928 million b/d in 2030. Most of the growth will come from oilsands which will rise from 2.365 million b/d to 3.668 million b/d, an increase of about one-third; 2015-2030 [Statista, 2018b]

  66. From $60.52-75.73/bbl [Giacchetta, 2015b]

  67. From $60.52-75.73/bbl [Giacchetta, 2015b]

  68. From 418.9 billion barrels of tight oil (unproved technically recoverable), data updated in 2015 [EIA, 2015a]

  69. From 175 billion barrels of commercial recoverable tight oil, data in 2013 [OGJ, 2013]

  70. From 4.98 million barrels per day (b/d), data in 2015[EIA, 2017d]

  71. Production growth rate, 2.0 million b/d in 2012, 7.3 million b/d in 2030, by calculation. [EIA, 2017b]

  72. From $51/bbl [WorldOil, 2016]

  73. From $51/bbl [WorldOil, 2016]

  74. From 4,291 billion barrels [WEC, 2017b]

  75. From 345 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources [EIA, 2013b]

  76. From oil shale and oil sands 14,973 kt, data in 2014 [IEA, 2018b]

  77. From global production of kerogen oil lies at around 20 000 barrels per day (b/d) [ IEA, 2013]

  78. Data in 2015, by calculation [IEA, 2017]

  79. 2023-2030 [EIA, 2009]

  80. Sum of conventional gas and unconventional gas

  81. From 15.7ZJ of gas (world proved), equivalent to 4,361,111 TWh[Thakur, 2016]

  82. Projections for 2018 [EIA, 2018a]

  83. Sum of conventional gas and shale gas

  84. From 3156 MTOE, data in 2017. [BP, 2018d]

  85. Data in 2018 upto November, for US; 58.2% for Combined Cycle, 14.36% for Combustion Turbine, 11.3% for Steam Turbine [EIA, 2018e]

  86. Data in 2016 [IEA, 2017d]

  87. Installed tural-gas-fired generating capacity (GW) growth rate 1.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018j]

  88. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  89. Data in 2019, vary from technology [EIA, 2019a]

  90. Data in 2018, vary based on technology[NREL, 2018]

  91. Data in 2018, Upper bound corresponds to Advanced CC generation with CCS projected to come online in 2021 [EIA, 2019a]

  92. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  93. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  94. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  95. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  96. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  97. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  98. From 10,000 tcf. [Thakur & Rajput, 2011]

  99. From 6831.7 trilllion cubic feet of conventional gas (proved reserves), data in end of 2017. [BP, 2018c]

  100. Projections for 2018 [EIA, 2018a]

  101. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  102. From 138469424TJ, data in 2015 [IEA, 2018c]

  103. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  104. Net tural-gas-fired electricity generation growth rate 2.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018k]

  105. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  106. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  107. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  108. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  109. From 53.2-152.1 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  110. From 53.2-152.1 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  111. From 52 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  112. From 16,110 tcf (456 tcm) [WEC, 2013b]

  113. From 7,576.6 trillion cubic feet of wet shale gas (unproved technically recoverable) [EIA, 2015]

  114. From 40 bcf/d, data in 2016 [Berman, 2016]

  115. From the United States(37bcf/d), Canada(4.1bcf/d), China(0.5bcf/d), and Argentina 18.93 TWh, data in 2015 [EIA, 2017a] [EIA, 2017e]

  116. Data in 2015, by calculation [EIA, 2017a]

  117. Tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production growth rate 3.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018l]

  118. [Gao & You, 2015]

  119. [Gao & You, 2015]

  120. From $5.06/MBtu [BP, 2015]

  121. From upper limit of 275-11,296 trillion cubic feet [Thakur, 2016 ]

  122. From ~30% of GIP (gas in place) [Thakur, 2016; FMI, 2018]

  123. From global CBM production was 2,920.3 Bcf in 2013 and is expected to reach 4,667.4 Bcf by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 7% from 2014 to 2020 [Prnewswire]

  124. Tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production growth rate 3.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018l]

  125. [Sarhosis et al., 2016]

  126. From 20,000 trillion cubic meters, or ~ 700,000 Tcf [NETL, 2011]

  127. From 6,700 Tcf [US DOE, 2011]

  128. From 834 bcm.[WOR, 2014]

  129. Tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production growth rate 3.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018l]

  130. From $4.70 to $8.60 per MBtu, projected to 2025 [Lester, 2016]

  131. From $4.70 to $8.60 per MBtu, projected to 2025 [Lester, 2016]

  132. Data in 2015 [IAEA, 2016]

  133. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  134. From 596.4 MTOE , data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  135. Data in 2018 upto November, for US. [EIA, 2018e]

  136. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  137. Installed nuclear generating capacity (GW) growth rate 1.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018m]

  138. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  139. in 2016 dollars [NREL, 2018/a>]

  140. Data in 2018 for advanced nuclear expected to come online in 2022 [EIA, 2019a]

  141. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  142. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  143. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  144. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  145. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  146. From 146 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  147. From 5,718,400 tonnes, data in 2015. A generic 1.0 GWe Light Water Reactor (LWR) producing 6.6 TWh per year requires about 150 tons of natural uranium. 5,718,400/150*6.6 = 2,516,000 TWh/yr [WNA, 2016a.]

  148. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  149. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  150. From 87.1-93.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  151. From 87.1-93.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  152. From 6,355,000 tonnes. [WNA, 2017a.] It is estimated that one ton of thorium can produce as much energy as 35 tons of uranium in a liquid fluoride thorium reactor. Thus, equivalent to 9,786,700 TWh/yr. [Ting, Jason. Thorium Energy Viability. 2015.]

  153. [Ramachandra & Shruthi, 2007]

  154. ~1500 EJ/yr [Moriarty & Honnery, 2016]

  155. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  156. From (402+4.9+472)* Cap Factor av .22 * 8760/1000 = 1693.82TWh Data in 2016 [REN21, 2018]

  157. Data in 2018 up to November [EIA, 2018e]

  158. From 2017 to 2018 [SEIA, 2018]

  159. Installed solar generating capacity (GW) growth rate 4.9%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018n]

  160. From 6,500 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  161. 372,000-469,000 by 2050 [Edenhofer et al., 2011]

  162. Data in 2017 [REN 21, 2018]

  163. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018e]

  164. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  165. Data in 2018 up to November [EIA, 2018e]

  166. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018e]

  167. From 227GW in 2015, 780GW in 2030, by calculation [REN21, 2016; IRE, 2016]

  168. Lower Range for Utility Scale PV [Lazard, 2018]

  169. Upper Range for Rooftop PV [Lazard, 2018]

  170. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  171. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  172. From 20-25% of LCOE; data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  173. From 20-25% of LCOE; data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  174. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  175. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  176. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  177. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  178. From 72 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  179. The theoretical potential of low temperature thermal far exceeds human energy demand. [Edenhofer et al., 2011]

  180. Data in 2017 [REN 21, 2018]

  181. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  182. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  183. Data in 2018 up to November, for US. [EIA, 2018e]

  184. Data in 2015 [REN 21, 2016]

  185. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  186. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  187. From 149.1-314.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  188. From 149.1-314.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  189. From 4,600 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  190. From upper range of 68,900-2,230,000 by 2050 [Edenhofer et al., 2011]

  191. Data in 2017 [REN 21, 2018]

  192. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  193. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  194. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  195. Data in 2015 [REN 21, 2016]

  196. From 4.8GW in 2015, 44GW in 2030, by calculation [REN 21, 2016; IRE, 2016]

  197. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  198. From 0.02-0.03 USD/kWh for Parabolic Though Collector(PTC),0.03-0.04 USD/kWh for Solar Tower(ST); data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  199. From 0.02-0.03 USD/kWh for Parabolic Though Collector(PTC),0.03-0.04 USD/kWh for Solar Tower(ST); data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  200. Avg. 0.22 USD/kWh, in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  201. From 5800 EJ/yr [REN21, 2004]

  202. [Global CCS Institute, 2008]

  203. Data in end 2017 [GWEC, 2018]

  204. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018e]

  205. From 825,779 GWh, data in 2016 [IRENA, 2017]

  206. Data in 2018 upto November, for US. [EIA, 2018e]

  207. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018e]

  208. Installed wind-powered generating capacity (GW) growth rate 3.1%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018m]

  209. Data in 2016 [EIA, 2017c]

  210. Data in 2016 [EIA, 2017c]

  211. From 37.7-172.7 $(2016)/MWh,projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  212. From 37.7-172.7 $(2016)/MWh,projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  213. From 94.8953 TW [WWEA, 2014]

  214. From 13.6 TW [Zhou et al., 2012]

  215. Data in end 2017 [GWEC, 2018]

  216. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  217. From 789,807 GWh, data in 2016 [IRENA, 2017]

  218. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  219. Data in 2015, by calculation [IRE, 2017; IEA, 2015c]

  220. Production growth rate, projected to 2020 [EIA, 2015c]

  221. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  222. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  223. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  224. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  225. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  226. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  227. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  228. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  229. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  230. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  231. From 56 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  232. From ~61 TW [Makridis, 2013]

  233. [Ackermann et al., 2004.]

  234. Data in end 2017 [GWEC, 2018]

  235. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  236. From 35,973 GWh, data in 2016 [IRENA, 2017]

  237. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  238. Data in 2015, by calculation [IRE, 2017; IEA, 2015c]

  239. Production growth rate, projected to 2020 [EIA, 2015c]

  240. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [NREL, 2018]

  241. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  242. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  243. From 96-208 USD/MWh, avg. 123 USD/MWh, data in 2016[IRE, 2018b]

  244. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  245. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  246. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  247. From 1,800 TW [Marvel et al., 2013]

  248. From 52 pWh/yr [Hoes et al., 2017]

  249. [WEC, 2017d]

  250. Data in 2017 including pumped hydro storage [IHA, 2018]

  251. Data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  252. From 918.6 MTOE Data in 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  253. Data in 2017 [IRENA, 2018]

  254. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018d]

  255. Installed hydroelectric generating capacity (GW) growth rate 1.0%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018p]

  256. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRENA, 2018]

  257. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRENA, 2018]

  258. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  259. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  260. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  261. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  262. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  263. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  264. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  265. [Johansson et al., 2004]

  266. From upper range of 1.8-33 EJ/yr [Moriarty & Honnery, 2012]

  267. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  268. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  269. From 963 GWh, data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  270. 1GW in 2015, 11GW in 2030, capacity growth rate 2015-2030 [Raventos et al., 2010.]

  271. [WEC, 2017c]

  272. [Krewitt et al., 2009]

  273. Wave and tidal energy [REN 21, 2016]

  274. From nearly 1TWh, data in 2017. [REN21, 2018]

  275. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  276. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  277. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  278. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  279. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  280. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  281. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  282. From 148 EUR/MWh [IRE, 2014b]

  283. From 148 EUR/MWh [IRE, 2014b]

  284. [EY, 2013]

  285. From upper range of 30-90 pWh [WEC, 2017c]

  286. Not at a commercial scale

  287. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  288. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  289. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  290. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  291. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  292. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  293. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  294. From 3.7 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  295. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  296. From 1006GWh [IEA, 2018c]

  297. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  298. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  299. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  300. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  301. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  302. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  303. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  304. From 75 £/MWh, projected to 2030 [Hundleby & Blanch, 2016]

  305. [IEA, 2017a]

  306. The total technical potential for salinity gradient power is estimated to be around 647 gigawatts (GW) globally, (compared to a global power capacity in 2011 of 5 456 GW), which is equivalent to 5,177 terawatt-hours (TWh), or 23% of electricity consumption in 2011. [IRE, 2014a]

  307. [EY, 2013]

  308. Not at a commercial scale

  309. From 45 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  310. From upper range of 1.2-22 EJ/yr [Moriarty & Honnery, 2012]

  311. From 12.8 GW power and 25 GW direct use [REN21, 2018]

  312. Data in 2015 [REN21, 2017.]

  313. From 170TWh or 613 PJ, data in 2017. [REN21, 2018]

  314. Data in 2018 [EIA, 2018e]

  315. From 2016 to 2017 [BP, 2018e]

  316. Geothermal generating capacity (GW) growth rate 4.4%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018q]

  317. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  318. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  319. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  320. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  321. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  322. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  323. From 2900 EJ/yr [EBIA]

  324. From upper range of 160–270 EJ/yr [Haberl et al., 2010]

  325. From 112 GW bio-power and 311 GW bio-heat [REN 21, 2017]

  326. Data in 2016 [REN21, 2017]

  327. From 62.5 EJ, data in 2016 [REN21, 2017, p45]

  328. Data in 2018 upto November: All biomass including wood [EIA, 2018e]

  329. Data in 2016 [REN 21, 2017; REN 21, 2016]

  330. Projected production growth rate 2017-2050; data in 2017. [EIA, 2018r]

  331. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  332. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  333. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  334. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  335. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  336. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  337. From 55.3-69.7 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  338. From 55.3-69.7 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  339. Agricultural residues (10–66 EJ), forestry residues (3–35 EJ), forestry (60–230 EJ). Sum to 73 - 331 EJ, equivalent to 20,278 - 91,944 TWh [Slade et al., 2014]

  340. From 49 EJ/yr [Haberl et al., 2010]

  341. Data in 2015 [IEA, 2018d]

  342. Data in 2017, for US. [EIA, 2018f]

  343. Data in 2015 [IEA, 2018d]

  344. Projected production growth rate 2017-2050; data in 2017. [EIA, 2018r]

  345. [REN 21, 2013]

  346. [REN 21, 2013]

  347. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  348. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  349. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  350. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  351. From upper range of 12-120 EJ, equivalent to 3,333-33,333 TWh [Slade et al., 2014]

  352. From 11EJ/yr [Haberl et al., 2010]

  353. Data in 2015 [IEA, 2018c]

  354. From 1351553TJ (municiple waste) + 797485TJ (industrial waste)[IEA, 2018f]

  355. Data in 2018 upto November, for US. [EIA, 2018e]

  356. Data in 2015 [IEA, 2018c]

  357. Projected production growth rate 2017-2050; data in 2017. [EIA, 2018r]

  358. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  359. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  360. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  361. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  362. From 22–1,272 EJ, equivalent to 6,111 TWh [Slade et al., 2014]

  363. From 40-110 EJ/yr, projected by 2050. Equivalent to 11,111 TWh - 30556 TWh. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcbb.12141/pdf

  364. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  365. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  366. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  367. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

Energy Storage Technologies

  1. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  2. [Luo et al. 2015]

  3. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  4. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  5. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  6. [ Acar, 2018]

  7. [Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  8. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  9. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  10. [Luo et al. 2015]

  11. [Luo et al. 2015]

  12. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  13. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  14. [Luo et al. 2015]

  15. Underground CAES: 5-400 MW; aboveground CAES: 3-15 MW [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  16. [Luo et al. 2015]

  17. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  18. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  19. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  20. [ Acar, 2018]

  21. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  22. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  23. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  24. [Luo et al. 2015]

  25. [Luo et al. 2015]

  26. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  27. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  28. [Luo et al. 2015]

  29. [ Acar, 2018]

  30. [Luo et al. 2015]

  31. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  32. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  33. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  34. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  35. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  36. [ Acar, 2018]

  37. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  38. [Luo et al. 2015]

  39. [Luo et al. 2015]

  40. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  41. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  42. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  43. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  44. [Luo et al. 2015]

  45. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  46. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  47. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  48. [ Acar, 2018]

  49. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  50. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  51. [ Argyrou et al. 2018]

  52. [Luo et al. 2015]

  53. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  54. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  55. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  56. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  57. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  58. [Luo et al. 2015]

  59. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  60. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  61. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  62. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  63. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  64. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  65. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  66. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  67. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  68. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  69. [Gur, 2018]

  70. [Gur, 2018]

  71. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  72. [Luo et al. 2015]

  73. For all Ni based batteries installed upto 2017[Argyrou et al.,2018]

  74. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  75. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  76. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  77. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  78. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  79. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  80. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  81. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  82. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  83. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  84. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  85. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  86. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  87. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  88. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  89. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  90. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  91. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  92. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  93. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  94. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  95. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  96. [Luo et al. 2015]

  97. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  98. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  99. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  100. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  101. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  102. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  103. [Luo et al. 2015]

  104. [Luo et al. 2015]

  105. [Luo et al. 2015]

  106. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  107. [Luo et al. 2015]

  108. [Luo et al. 2015]

  109. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  110. [Luo et al. 2015]

  111. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  112. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  113. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  114. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  115. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  116. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  117. [Luo et al. 2015]

  118. [Luo et al. 2015]

  119. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  120. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  121. [Luo et al. 2015]

  122. [Luo et al. 2015]

  123. [Luo et al. 2015]

  124. [Luo et al. 2015]

  125. [Luo et al. 2015]

  126. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  127. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  128. [Luo et al. 2015]

  129. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  130. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  131. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  132. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  133. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  134. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  135. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  136. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  137. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  138. [Luo et al. 2015]

  139. [Luo et al. 2015]

  140. [Luo et al. 2015]

  141. [Luo et al. 2015]

  142. [Luo et al. 2015]

  143. [Luo et al. 2015]

  144. [Luo et al. 2015]

  145. [Luo et al. 2015]

  146. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

close
 availabilityinstalled scalegrowthcost
Capital Costs (USD/kW)Fixed O&M Costs (USD/kW-yr)Variable O&M Costs (USD/MWh)Levelized Costs (USD/MWh)Projected Costs (USD/MWh)
Energy SourceResource (TWh)Resource (TWh/yr)Reserve (TWh)Reserve (TWh/yr)Installed Capacity (GW)Production, Elec (TWh)Total Primary Energy Supply (TWh)Capacity Factor (%)Current Rates (%)Projected Rates (%)minmaxminmaxminmaxminmaxminmaxLifetime Costs (USD/MWh)
Totals840,826,91840,207,78711,07454,554171,553
 Coal  187,630,100 [1]8,426,033 [2]2,087 [3]9,723 [4]43,438 [5]53.7 [6]3.2 [7]0.2 [8]226 [9]6,207 [10]33 [11]83.75 [12]1.3 [13]9.89 [14]60 [15]166 [16]71 [17]148 [18]65 [19]
Hard144,204,600 [20]5,847,762 [21]8,871 [22]35,997 [23]3.3 [24]86.45 [25]106.4 [26]45.1 [27]
Soft35,972,300 [28]2,578,271 [29]3,226 [30]10,006 [31]1.26 [32]50.54 [33]69.16 [34]
Peat7,453,200 [35]1,917,000 [36]10 [37]93 [38]-19 [39]
 Oil  16,670,994 [40]5,111,111 [41]491 [42]883 [43]53,753 [44]14.0, 2.53 [45]0.11 [46]-1.1 [47]62.3 [48] [49]61.54 [50]80.09 [51]
Conventional Crude5,268,160 [52]2,883,213 [53]990 [54]43,851 [55]0.7 [56]0.6 [57]27.6 [58]70.6 [59]58.3 [60]
Tar sands3,398,800 [61]1,020,000 [62]122 [63]1,704 [64]2.97 [65]37.17 [66]46.51 [67]
Tight oil711,881 [68]297,396 [69]2,960 [70]9.015 [71]31.3 [72] [73]
Oil shale7,292,153 [74]586,500 [75]122 [76]119 [77]-6.5 [78]35 [79]
 Gas  216,112,365 [80]4,361,111 [81]1,769 [82]9,822 [83]36,704 [84]58.2, 12.48, 14.36 [85]0.8 [86]1.2 [87]671 [88]1,534 [89]10 [90]34.43 [91]3 [92]7 [93]30 [94]122 [95]40 [96]129 [97]
Conventional Gas2,930,711 [98]2,002,174 [99]1,769 [100]5,915 [101]37,851 [102]4 [103]2.2 [104] [105] [106]42 [107]78 [108]53.2 [109]152.1 [110]52 [111]
Shale gas4,721,374 [112]2,220,482 [113]4,279 [114]4,469 [115]54.13 [116]3.6 [117]69 [118]91 [119]17.3 [120]
Coalbed methane3,310,531 [121]993,159 [122]856 [123]3.6 [124]46 [125]
Methane hydrates205,149,749 [126]1,963,576 [127]8,632 [128]3.6 [129]16 [130]29.3 [131]
 Nuclear  383 [132]2,636 [133]6,936 [134]92.1 [135]1.1 [136]1 [137]5,947 [138]99 [139]103.31 [140]2 [141]63 [142]189 [143]61 [144]93.8 [145]146 [146]
Uranium fission2,516,000 [147]63 [148]189 [149]61 [150]93.8 [151]
Thorium fission9,786,700 [152]
 Solar  152,033,485 [153]720,000 [154]878.9461.7 [155]1,694 [156]25-29 [157]-2 [158]4.9 [159]
Photovoltaic (PV)56,940,000 [160]469,000 [161]402 [162]442.6 [163]244 [164]27.1 [165]35.2 [166]9 [167]950 [168]3250 [169]14 [170]23 [171]20 [172]25 [173]36 [174]267 [175]20 [176]74 [177]72 [178]
Low-temp thermal [179]472 [180]9.6 [181]10 [182]25.09 [183]6 [184]95 [185]181 [186]155.4 [187]340.6 [188]
High-temp thermal40,296,000 [189]2,230,000 [190]4.9 [191]9.6 [192]8 [193]29.6 [194]9.7 [195]16 [196]4,798 [197]20 [198]40 [199]220 [200]
 Wind  1,611,111 [201]278,000 [202]539.1 [203]1,123 [204]826 [205]37.47 [206]17.30 [207]3.1 [208]65 [209]250 [210]37.7 [211]172.7 [212]
Onshore831,324 [213]119,500.0 [214]520.3 [215]790 [216]790 [217]32 [218]16.67 [219]12 [220]1,150 [221]1550 [222]41 [223]51 [224]0.02 [225]0.03 [226]22 [227]166 [228]29 [229]132 [230]56 [231]
Offshore534,360 [232]36,999.0 [233]18.8 [234]36.0 [235]36 [236]38 [237]43.88 [238]24 [239]3,025 [240]20 [241]131 [242]92 [243]241 [244]66 [245]164 [246]
High-altitude15,768,000 [247]
 Hydro52,000 [248]10,000 [249]1,267 [250]4,060 [251]10,683 [252]48 [253]0.9 [254]1 [255]1,000 [256]3500 [257]15 [258]41 [259]0.003 [260]35 [261]69 [262]36 [263]69 [264]
 Ocean  2,040,000 [265]9,200 [266]0.500 [267]1.0 [268]1 [269]22.4 [270]
Wave32,000 [271]5,555 [272]1.0 [273]1 [274]30-35 [275]3,600 [276]15,300 [277]100 [278]500 [279]210 [280]679 [281]165 [282]198 [283]
Thermal conversion44,000 [284]90,000 [285]Not at a commercial scale [286]Not at a commercial scale97 [287]15,000 [288]30,000 [289]480 [290]950 [291]350 [292]650 [293]
Tidal/currents32,412 [294]0.5000 [295]1.0 [296]Not at a commercial scale35-42 [297]4,300 [298]8,700 [299]150 [300]530 [301]210 [302]470 [303]94 [304]
Salinity gradients2,000 [305]5,177 [306]0.014 [307]Not at a commercial scale [308]Not at a commercial scaleNot at a commercial level
 Geothermal394,200 [309]6,000 [310]37.8 [311]78.0 [312]157 [313]76.95 [314]4% [315]4 [316]4,000 [317]6,400145 [318]71 [319]219 [320]80 [321]230 [322]
 Biomass  805,556 [323]75,000 [324]433 [325]504 [326]17,361 [327]49.93 [328]8.62 [329]1 [330]2,668 [331]53 [332]160 [333]0.005 [334]55 [335]114 [336]73.2 [337]114.5 [338]
Wood and residues91,944 [339]13,611 [340]344 [341]50.7 [342]6.79 [343]1 [344]200 [345]5,500 [346]55 [347]114 [348]73.2 [349]114.5 [350]
Waste33,333 [351]3,055 [352]94.2 [353]597 [354]73.24 [355]0.23 [356]1 [357]55 [358]114 [359]73.2 [360]114.5 [361]
Energy crops6,111 [362]2.75 [363]55 [364]114 [365]73.2 [366]114.5 [367]
 powercapacitydurationefficiencylifetimemobilitycostdensity
Storage TypePower Rating/Rated Power (MW, range)Rated Energy Capacity (MWh, range)Installed Capacity (GW)Storage DurationDischarge/cycle durationCycle/Roundtrip Efficiency (%, range)Lifetime (yrs)Lifetime (cycles)Mobile vs. StationaryCapital Cost ($/kWh)Fixed Operation + Maintenance ($/kW-yr)Variable Operation + Maintenance ($/kWh)Technical MaturityEnergy DensityPower Density
Mechanical
Pumped Hydro100-5000 [368]500-8000 [369]169 [370]h-days [371]1-24h [372]70-85 [373]30-60 [374]20,000-50,000 [375]Stationary50-100 [376]3 [377]0.004 [378]Actual system proven in operational environment [379]0.2-2 Wh/L [380]0.5-1.5 W/L [381]
Compressed Air (CAES)100-300 [382]0-1000; 0.002-0.01 [383]0.64 [384]h-days [385]1-24h [386]41-75 [387]20-40 [388]>13,000 [389]Stationary2-50 [390]19-25 [391]0.003 [392]System complete and qualified [393]~12 Wh/L [394]0.5-2 W/L [395]
Flywheel0.1-2 [396]0.0052-5 [397]0.93 [398]s-min [399]ms-15m [400]80-90 [401]15-20 [402]~100000 [403]Stationary1000-5000 [404]20 [405]0.004 [406]Actual system proven in operational environment [407]20-80 Wh/L [408]~5000 W/L [409]
Electrochemical
Secondary Batteries
Lead-acid0-20 [410]0.001–40 [411]0.08 [412]min-days [413]s-h [414]75-85 [415]3-12 [416]200-1800 [417]Mobile150-500 [418]50 [419]0.46 [420]Actual system proven in operational environment [421]25-45 Wh/kg [422]180-200 W/kg [423]
Li-Ion0-0.1 [424]0.004–10 [425]1.12 [426]min-days [427]m-h [428]90-97 [429]10-15 [430]1000-10000 [431]Mobile600-2500 [432]8.6 [433]2.6 [434]Actual system proven in operational environment [435]150-210 Wh/kg [436]500-2000 W/kg [437]
NaS0.05-8 [438]0.4–244.8 [439]0.03 [440]h-days [441]s-h [442]75-90 [443]10~15 [444]2,500-4,500 [445]Mobile300-500 [446]80 [447]2.2 [448]Actual system proven in operational environment [449]15-300 Wh/L [450]120-160 W/L [451]
Flow Battery
Redox Flow0.01-10 [452]NAh-months [453]s-10h [454]65-85 [455]5~10 [456]10,000-13,000 [457]Mobile~582 [458]10.6 [459]1.1 [460]Actual system proven in operational environment [461]10-35 Wh/kg166W/kg
Hybrid FlowNANANANANANANAMobileNANANAActual system proven in operational environment
Electrical
Capacitor/Supercapacitor0-0.05 [462]0.0005 [463]0.08 [464]s-h [465]ms-60m [466]60-65 [467]5~8 [468]50000 [469]Mobile300-2000 [470]6~13 [471]0-0.05 [472]Actual system proven in operational environment [473]2~30 [474]100000+ [475]
Super Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)0.1-10 [476]0.0008-0.015 [477]min-h [478]ms-8s [479]95-98 [480]15~20 [481]>100,000 [482]Stationary1000-10000 [483]18.5 [484]0.001 [485]Actual system proven in operational environment [486]~6 Wh/L [487]1000-4000 W/L [488]
Thermochemical
Solar Fuels0-10 [489]NAh-months [490]1~24 [491]~20-30 [492]NANAStationaryNANANATechnology demonstrated in relevant environment [493]500-10,000NA
Chemical
Hydrogen Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer0-50 [494]0.312 [495]0.015 [496]h-months [497]s-24h [498]34-44 [499]10-30 [500]20000 [501]Mobile~4.6 [502]31 [503]NASystem complete and qualified [504]500-3000 [505]500+ [506]
Thermal
Sensible/latent heat storage0.1–300 [507]NAmin-months [508]1-24h [509]~30-60 [510]5~20 [511]NAStationary20-60 [512]NANAActual system proven in operational environment [513]80-500NA