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AGCI Interactive Energy Table

  1. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  2. From 1035012 million tons of coal (proved reserves), equivalent to 8426032.692 TWh, latest data in June, 2018 [BP, 2018a]

  3. Data in 2019 [Carbon Brief, 2020]

  4. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  5. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  6. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019b]

  7. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  8. Installed coal-fired generating capacity (GW) growth rate 0.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018g]

  9. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  10. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  11. Data in 2018, vary based on technology [EIA, 2018s]

  12. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  13. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  14. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2020]

  15. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  16. [Lazard, 2019]

  17. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  18. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  19. From 65 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  20. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  21. From 734903 million tons of hard coal (proved reserves), equivalent to 5982846 TWh; latest data in 2019 [BP, 2019b]

  22. From Sub-bituminous coal (649513kt), Lignite (539433kt), total to 1188946 kt (9679.21 TWh), electricity efficiency 0.33, equivalent to 3226 TWh in 2014 [EIA, 2018b]

  23. From 14,519,515TJ (Anthracite) + 33,733,135TJ (Metallurgical Coal) + 81,334,804TJ (Bituminous) = 129587454TJ, data in 2014 [EIA, 2018d]

  24. Data in 2017, by calculation; coking coal and steam coal [IEA, 2018g]

  25. From 65-80 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  26. From 65-80 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  27. Projected to 2040 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  28. Projected to 2040 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  29. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  30. From 319879 million tons of soft coal (proved reserves), equivalent to 2578270.98 TWh, latest data in 2019 [BP, 2019b]

  31. Subbituminous(25,082,899TJ)+Lignite(10,937,540TJ) = 36,020,439 TJ, equivalent to 10,006 TWh, data in 2014 [EIA, 2018c]

  32. From 25,082,899TJ(subbituminous) + 10,937,540TJ (lignite) = 36020439TJ, data in 2014. [EIA, 2018d]

  33. Data in 2017, by calculation; lignite [IEA, 2018g]

  34. From 38-52 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  35. From 38-52 Euro(2013)/MWh, data in 2013; conversion factor 1EU = 1.33USD in 2013 [Fraunhofer ISE, 2013]

  36. From upper end of total peat in situ range of 6,000-13,800 billion m3. Conversion is referred to (Virtanen, 2012) that 23.7 billion m3 of energy peat reserve in situ contents energy 12 800 TWh. [WEC, 2013a; Kimmo Virtanen, 2012]

  37. From 0.3 trillion tons, conversion 20-23 MJ/kg peat. [Fuchsman, 2012; FAO, 1988]

  38. From 3535kt (28.78 TWh), electricity efficiency 0.33, equivalent to 9.6 TWh, data in 2014 [IEA, 2018b]

  39. From 15.2Mt, data in 2014. [IEA, 2014]

  40. Data in 2016, by calculation [IEA, 2018g]

  41. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  42. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  43. Data for 2019 [IEA, 2020]

  44. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  45. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  46. Data in 2019 for oil run steam turbine generators [EIA, 2019b]

  47. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  48. Installed liquids-fired generating capacity (GW) growth rate -1.1%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018h]

  49. From 18.27 (2015$/MMBtu), data in 2015 [EIA, 2016b]

  50. From 18.27 (2015$/MMBtu), data in 2015 [EIA, 2016b]

  51. From 18.05-23.49$(2015)/MMBtu, data in 2015. [IEA, 2018o]

  52. From 18.05-23.49$(2015)/MMBtu, data in 2015. [IEA, 2018o]

  53. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  54. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  55. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  56. From 95.24-96.83 mb/d, data in 2016 [IEA, 2018e]

  57. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  58. Crude oil /a production growth rate 0.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018i]

  59. From $45-115/bbl, in 2014-2015 [EIA, 2015b]

  60. From $45-115/bbl, in 2014-2015 [EIA, 2015b]

  61. From $95/bbl (nomil $), projected to 2030 [EIA, 2007]

  62. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  63. From ~600 billion barrels [Speight, 2016]

  64. From oil shale and oil sands 14,973 kt, data in 2014 [IEA, 2018b]

  65. From 635000 barrels per day (Venezuela+Madagascar+US), in 2015 [Tarsanworld, 2017]

  66. Production growth rate. From Over the 15-year period CAPP sees crude oil production rising by 1.1 million b/d from 3.852 million b/d in 2015 (actual) to 4.928 million b/d in 2030. Most of the growth will come from oilsands which will rise from 2.365 million b/d to 3.668 million b/d, an increase of about one-third; 2015-2030 [Statista, 2018b]

  67. From $60.52-75.73/bbl [Giacchetta, 2015b]

  68. From $60.52-75.73/bbl [Giacchetta, 2015b]

  69. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  70. From 418.9 billion barrels of tight oil (unproved technically recoverable) [EIA, 2015]

  71. From 4.98 million barrels per day (b/d), data in 2015[EIA, 2017d]

  72. Production growth rate, 2.0 million b/d in 2012, 7.3 million b/d in 2030, by calculation. [EIA, 2017b]

  73. From $51/bbl [WorldOil, 2016]

  74. From $51/bbl [WorldOil, 2016]

  75. From 4,291 billion barrels [WEC, 2017b]

  76. From 345 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources [EIA, 2013b]

  77. From oil shale and oil sands 14,973 kt, data in 2014 [IEA, 2018b]

  78. From global production of kerogen oil lies at around 20 000 barrels per day (b/d) [ IEA, 2013]

  79. Data in 2018, by calculation [IEA, 2019]

  80. 2023-2030 [EIA, 2009]

  81. Sum of conventional gas and unconventional gas

  82. Data for 2019 [IEA, 2020]

  83. Sum of conventional gas and shale gas

  84. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  85. Data in 2019 for combined cycle NG plants [EIA, 2019b]

  86. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  87. Installed natural-gas-fired generating capacity (GW) growth rate 1.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018j]

  88. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  89. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  90. Data in 2018, vary based on technology[NREL, 2018]

  91. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  92. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  93. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2020]

  94. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  95. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  96. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  97. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  98. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  99. From 6851.8 trilllion cubic feet of conventional gas (proved reserves), data in end of 2018. [BP, 2019b]

  100. Data for 2019 [IEA, 2020]

  101. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  102. [IEA, 2019]

  103. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  104. Net natural-gas-fired electricity generation growth rate 2.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018k]

  105. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  106. Data in 2016, vary from technology [EIA, 2016a]

  107. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  108. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  109. From 53.2-152.1 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  110. From 53.2-152.1 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  111. From 52 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  112. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  113. From 7,576.6 trillion cubic feet of wet shale gas (unproved technically recoverable) [EIA, 2015a]

  114. From 40 bcf/d, data in 2016 [Berman, 2016]

  115. From the United States(37bcf/d), Canada(4.1bcf/d), China(0.5bcf/d), and Argentina 18.93 TWh, data in 2015 [EIA, 2017a] [EIA, 2017e]

  116. Data in 2015, by calculation [EIA, 2017a]

  117. Tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production growth rate 3.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018l]

  118. [Gao & You, 2015]

  119. [Gao & You, 2015]

  120. From $5.06/MBtu [BP, 2015]

  121. Data from 2018, IEA World Energy Model [IEA, 2019]

  122. From ~60% of GIP (gas in place) 275 TCF [Thakur, 2016]

  123. From global CBM production was 2,920.3 Bcf in 2013 and is expected to reach 4,667.4 Bcf by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 7% from 2014 to 2020 [Prnewswire]

  124. Tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production growth rate 3.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018l]

  125. [Sarhosis et al., 2016]

  126. From 20,000 trillion cubic meters, or ~ 700,000 Tcf [NETL, 2011]

  127. From 6,700 Tcf [US DOE, 2011]

  128. From 834 bcm.[WOR, 2014]

  129. Tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production growth rate 3.6%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018l]

  130. From $4.70 to $8.60 per MBtu, projected to 2025 [Lester, 2016]

  131. From $4.70 to $8.60 per MBtu, projected to 2025 [Lester, 2016]

  132. Data for 2019 [IEA, 2020]

  133. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  134. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  135. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  136. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  137. Installed nuclear generating capacity (GW) growth rate 1.2%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018m]

  138. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2020]

  139. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  140. In 2016 dollars [NREL, 2018/a>]

  141. Data in 2019 for advanced nuclear [EIA, 2020]

  142. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  143. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2020]

  144. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  145. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  146. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  147. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  148. From 146 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  149. From 5,718,400 tonnes, data in 2015. A generic 1.0 GWe Light Water Reactor (LWR) producing 6.6 TWh per year requires about 150 tons of natural uranium. 5,718,400/150*6.6 = 2,516,000 TWh/yr [WNA, 2016a.]

  150. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  151. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  152. From 87.1-93.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  153. From 87.1-93.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  154. From 6,355,000 tonnes. [WNA, 2017a.] It is estimated that one ton of thorium can produce as much energy as 35 tons of uranium in a liquid fluoride thorium reactor. Thus, equivalent to 9,786,700 TWh/yr. [Ting, Jason. Thorium Energy Viability. 2015.]

  155. [Ramachandra & Shruthi, 2007]

  156. ~1500 EJ/yr [Moriarty & Honnery, 2016]

  157. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  158. [REN21, 2016]

  159. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  160. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2018]

  161. Installed solar generating capacity (GW) growth rate 4.9%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018n]

  162. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  163. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  164. From 6,500 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  165. Data in 2018 [REN 21, 2019]

  166. Data in 2018 [REN 21, 2019]

  167. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  168. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  169. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  170. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  171. From 227GW in 2015, 780GW in 2030, by calculation [REN21, 2016] ; [IRE, 2016]

  172. Lower Range for Utility Scale PV [Lazard, 2018]

  173. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  174. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  175. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  176. From 20-25% of LCOE; data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  177. From 20-25% of LCOE; data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  178. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  179. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  180. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  181. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  182. From 72 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  183. The theoretical potential of low temperature thermal far exceeds human energy demand. [Edenhofer et al., 2011]

  184. Data in 2018 [REN 21, 2019]

  185. Data in 2018 [REN 21, 2019]

  186. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  187. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  188. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  189. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  190. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  191. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  192. From 149.1-314.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  193. From 149.1-314.8 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040. [EIA, 2017c]

  194. From 4,600 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  195. Data in 2018 [REN 21, 2019]

  196. Data in 2018 [REN 21, 2019]

  197. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  198. Low-temp thermal and high-temp thermal; data in 2015 [IRENA, 2018a]

  199. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  200. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  201. From 4.8GW in 2015, 44GW in 2030, by calculation, p140 Table R1 [REN 21, 2016; IRE, 2016]

  202. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  203. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  204. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  205. From 0.02-0.03 USD/kWh for Parabolic Though Collector(PTC),0.03-0.04 USD/kWh for Solar Tower(ST); data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  206. From 0.02-0.03 USD/kWh for Parabolic Though Collector(PTC),0.03-0.04 USD/kWh for Solar Tower(ST); data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  207. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  208. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  209. From 5800 EJ/yr [REN21, 2004]

  210. []

  211. [BP, 2020]

  212. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  213. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019]

  214. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  215. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  216. Installed wind-powered generating capacity (GW) growth rate 3.1%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018m]

  217. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  218. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  219. From 37.7-172.7 $(2016)/MWh,projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  220. From 37.7-172.7 $(2016)/MWh,projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  221. From 94.8953 TW [WWEA, 2014]

  222. From 13.6 TW [Zhou et al., 2012]

  223. Data in end 2018 [GWEC, 2019]

  224. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  225. From 789,807 GWh, data in 2016 [IRENA, 2017]

  226. Data in 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  227. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  228. Production growth rate, projected to 2020 [EIA, 2015c]

  229. Data in 2018 [Lazard, 2018]

  230. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  231. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  232. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  233. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  234. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  235. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  236. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  237. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  238. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  239. From 56 USD/MWh in US, in 2017. [Statista, 2018c]

  240. From ~61 TW [Makridis, 2013]

  241. [Ackermann et al., 2004.]

  242. Data in end 2018 [GWEC, 2019]

  243. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  244. From 35,973 GWh, data in 2016 [IRENA, 2017]

  245. Data in 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  246. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  247. Production growth rate, projected to 2020 [EIA, 2015c]

  248. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [NREL, 2018]

  249. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  250. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  251. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  252. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  253. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  254. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  255. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  256. From 1,800 TW [Marvel et al., 2013]

  257. Data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  258. From 52 pWh/yr [Hoes et al., 2017]

  259. [WEC, 2017d]

  260. Data in 2018 [IHA, 2019]

  261. Data in 2018 [IHA, 2019]

  262. Data in 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  263. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  264. From 2017 to 2018 [BP, 2019b]

  265. Installed hydroelectric generating capacity (GW) growth rate 1.0%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018p]

  266. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRENA, 2018]

  267. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  268. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  269. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  270. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  271. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  272. In 2017 dollars [NREL, 2019]

  273. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  274. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  275. [Johansson et al., 2004]

  276. From upper range of 1.8-33 EJ/yr [Moriarty & Honnery, 2012]

  277. Data in 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  278. Data in 2018 [IEA, 2019b]

  279. From 963 GWh, data in 2015 [IRENA, 2017]

  280. 1GW in 2015, 11GW in 2030, capacity growth rate 2015-2030 [Raventos et al., 2010.]

  281. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  282. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  283. [WEC, 2017c]

  284. [Krewitt et al., 2009]

  285. Wave and tidal energy [REN 21, 2016]

  286. From nearly 1TWh, data in 2017. [REN21, 2018]

  287. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  288. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  289. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  290. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  291. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  292. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  293. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  294. From 148 EUR/MWh [IRE, 2014b]

  295. From 148 EUR/MWh [IRENA, 2014b]

  296. [EY, 2013]

  297. [WEC, 2017c]

  298. Not at a commercial scale

  299. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  300. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  301. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  302. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  303. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  304. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  305. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  306. From 3.7 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  307. Data in 2017 [REN21, 2018]

  308. Data in 2018 [IEA, 2019b]

  309. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  310. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  311. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  312. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  313. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  314. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  315. Data in 2016 [WEC, 2017c]

  316. From 75 £/MWh, projected to 2030 [Hundleby & Blanch, 2016]

  317. [IEA, 2017a]

  318. The total technical potential for salinity gradient power is estimated to be around 647 gigawatts (GW) globally, (compared to a global power capacity in 2011 of 5 456 GW), which is equivalent to 5,177 terawatt-hours (TWh), or 23% of electricity consumption in 2011. [IRE, 2014a]

  319. [EY, 2016]

  320. Not at a commercial scale

  321. From 45 TW [Jacobson & Delucchi, 2011]

  322. From upper range of 1.2-22 EJ/yr [Moriarty & Honnery, 2012]

  323. From 13.3 GW power and 26 GW direct use [REN21, 2019]

  324. Data in 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  325. From 170TWh or 613 PJ, data in 2017. [REN21, 2018]

  326. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  327. From 2017 to 2018 [REN21, 2019]

  328. Geothermal generating capacity (GW) growth rate 4.4%, 2015-2050 [EIA, 2018q]

  329. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  330. [IRENA, 2018]

  331. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  332. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2020]

  333. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  334. Data in 2019 [Lazard, 2019]

  335. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  336. Projections for 2030 [NREL, 2018]

  337. [EBIA]

  338. From upper range of 160–270 EJ/yr [Haberl et al., 2010]

  339. From 130 GW bio-power and 421 GW bio-heat [REN 21, 2019]

  340. Data in 2018 [REN21,2019]

  341. From 62.5 EJ, data in 2016 [REN21, 2017, p45]

  342. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2019a]

  343. From 2017 to 2018 (using bio-electricity as a proxy) [REN21, 2019]

  344. Projected production growth rate 2017-2050; data in 2017. [EIA, 2018r]

  345. Global average installed cost, data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  346. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  347. In 2016 dollars[NREL, 2018]

  348. Data in 2019, vary based on technology [EIA, 2020]

  349. Data in 2017 [IRE, 2018b]

  350. Data in 2019 [EIA, 2020]

  351. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  352. In 2017 dollars [NREL, 2019]

  353. From 55.3-69.7 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  354. From 55.3-69.7 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  355. Agricultural residues (10–66 EJ), forestry residues (3–35 EJ), forestry (60–230 EJ). Sum to 73 - 331 EJ, equivalent to 20,278 - 91,944 TWh [Slade et al., 2014]

  356. From 49 EJ/yr [Haberl et al., 2010]

  357. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  358. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  359. Data in 2017, for US. [EIA, 2018f]

  360. Data in 2015 [IEA, 2018d]

  361. Projected production growth rate 2017-2050; data in 2017. [EIA, 2018r]

  362. [REN 21, 2013]

  363. [REN 21, 2013]

  364. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  365. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  366. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  367. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  368. From upper range of 12-120 EJ, equivalent to 3,333-33,333 TWh [Slade et al., 2014]

  369. From 11EJ/yr [Haberl et al., 2010]

  370. Data from 2019 [IRENA, 2020]

  371. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  372. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  373. Data in 2018 upto November, for US. [EIA, 2018e]

  374. Data in 2015 [IEA, 2018c]

  375. Projected production growth rate 2017-2050; data in 2017. [EIA, 2018r]

  376. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  377. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  378. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  379. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  380. Data from 2019 [World Biogas Association, 2019]

  381. Data from 2019 [World Biogas Association, 2019]

  382. Data from 2019 [IRENA, 2020]

  383. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  384. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  385. [GCB, 2013]

  386. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  387. Data in 2016 [Lazard, 2017]

  388. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  389. From 73.2-114.5 $(2016)/MWh, projected to 2040 [EIA, 2017c]

  390. Data from 2019 [IRENA, 2020]

  391. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  392. Data in 2017 [World Bioenergy Association, 2019]

  393. Data in 2019 [IEA, 2020b]

  394. Data in 2019 [IEA, 2020b]

Energy Storage Technologies

  1. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  2. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  3. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  4. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  5. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  6. [ Acar, 2018]

  7. [Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  8. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  9. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  10. [Luo et al. 2015]

  11. [Luo et al. 2015]

  12. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  13. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  14. [Luo et al. 2015]

  15. Underground CAES: 5-400 MW; aboveground CAES: 3-15 MW [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  16. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  17. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  18. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  19. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  20. [ Acar, 2018]

  21. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  22. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  23. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  24. [Luo et al. 2015]

  25. [Luo et al. 2015]

  26. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  27. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  28. [Luo et al. 2015]

  29. [ Acar, 2018]

  30. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  31. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  32. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  33. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  34. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  35. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  36. [ Acar, 2018]

  37. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  38. [Luo et al. 2015]

  39. [Luo et al. 2015]

  40. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  41. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  42. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  43. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  44. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  45. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  46. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  47. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  48. [ Acar, 2018]

  49. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  50. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  51. [ Argyrou et al. 2018]

  52. [Luo et al. 2015]

  53. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  54. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  55. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  56. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  57. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  58. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  59. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  60. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  61. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  62. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  63. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  64. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  65. [Argyrou et al. 2018]

  66. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  67. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  68. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  69. [Gur, 2018]

  70. [Gur, 2018]

  71. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  72. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  73. For all Ni based batteries installed upto 2017[Argyrou et al.,2018]

  74. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  75. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  76. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  77. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  78. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  79. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  80. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  81. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  82. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  83. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  84. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  85. [ Argyrou et. al, 2018]

  86. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  87. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  88. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  89. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  90. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  91. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  92. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  93. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  94. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  95. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  96. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  97. Data from June, 2019[US DOE, 2019]

  98. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  99. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  100. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  101. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  102. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  103. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  104. [Luo et al. 2015]

  105. [Luo et al. 2015]

  106. [Luo et al. 2015]

  107. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  108. [Luo et al. 2015]

  109. [Luo et al. 2015]

  110. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  111. [Luo et al. 2015]

  112. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  113. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  114. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  115. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  116. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  117. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  118. [Luo et al. 2015]

  119. [Luo et al. 2015]

  120. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  121. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  122. [Luo et al. 2015]

  123. [Luo et al. 2015]

  124. [Luo et al. 2015]

  125. [Luo et al. 2015]

  126. [Luo et al. 2015]

  127. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  128. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  129. [Luo et al. 2015]

  130. [Argyrou et al.,2018]

  131. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  132. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  133. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  134. [Zhao et al. 2015]

  135. [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  136. converted from 399-779 €/kWh [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  137. from average 25 €/kW-yr [ Zakeri & Syri, 2015]

  138. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

  139. [Luo et al. 2015]

  140. [Luo et al. 2015]

  141. [Luo et al. 2015]

  142. [Luo et al. 2015]

  143. [Luo et al. 2015]

  144. [Luo et al. 2015]

  145. [Luo et al. 2015]

  146. [Luo et al. 2015]

  147. [Nguyen et al., 2017]

close
 availabilityinstalled scalegrowthcost
Capital Costs (USD/kW)Fixed O&M Costs (USD/kW-yr)Variable O&M Costs (USD/MWh)Levelized Costs (USD/MWh)Projected Costs (USD/MWh)
Energy SourceResource (TWh)Resource (TWh/yr)Reserve (TWh)Reserve (TWh/yr)Installed Capacity (GW)Production, Elec (TWh)Total Primary Energy Supply (TWh)Capacity Factor (%)Current Rates (%)Projected Rates (%)minmaxminmaxminmaxminmaxminmaxLifetime Costs (USD/MWh)
Totals830,245,90641,542,06211,79775,199170,785
 Coal  187,356,974 [1]10,478,117 [2]2,100 [3]10,101 [4]43,870 [5]47.5 [6]4.3 [7]0.2 [8]226 [9]5,851 [10]33 [11]80 [12]1.3 [13]10.93 [14]66 [15]152 [16]71 [17]148 [18]65 [19]
Hard148,768,634 [20]5,982,846 [21]8,871 [22]35,997 [23]3.3 [24]86.45 [25]106.4 [26]45.1 [27] [28]
Soft35,972,300 [29]2,578,271 [30]3,226 [31]10,006 [32]1.26 [33]50.54 [34]69.16 [35]
Peat7,453,200 [36]1,917,000 [37]10 [38]93 [39]-19 [40]
 Oil  10,476,840 [41]2,888,991 [42]490 [43]803 [44]51,893 [45]12.7 [46]2.4 [47]-1.1 [48]62.3 [49] [50]61.54 [51]80.09 [52]
Conventional Crude3,640,129 [53]2,838,883 [54]990 [55]43,851 [56]2.4 [57]0.6 [58]27.6 [59]70.6 [60]58.3 [61]
Tar sands3,177,890 [62]1,020,000 [63]122 [64]1,704 [65]2.97 [66]37.17 [67]46.51 [68]
Tight oil842,906 [69]711,881 [70]2,960 [71]9.015 [72]31.3 [73] [74]
Oil shale7,292,153 [75]586,500 [76] [77]119 [78]-6.5 [79]35 [80]
 Gas  212,632,440 [81]6,269,7871,800 [82] [83]38,484 [84]56.8 [85]5.2 [86]1.2 [87]671 [88]2,470 [89]11 [90]35.01 [91]3 [92]5.82 [93]44 [94]199 [95]40 [96]129 [97]
Conventional Gas4,408,961 [98]2,037,372 [99]1,800 [100]6,183 [101]40,871 [102]5.3 [103]2.2 [104] [105] [106]44 [107]199 [108]53.2 [109]152.1 [110]52 [111]
Shale gas2,556,166 [112]2,220,482 [113]4,279 [114]4,469 [115]54.13 [116]3.6 [117]69 [118]91 [119]17.3 [120]
Coalbed methane517,564 [121]48,357 [122]856 [123]3.6 [124]46 [125]
Methane hydrates205,149,749 [126]1,963,576 [127]8,632 [128]3.6 [129]16 [130]29.3 [131]
 Nuclear  490 [132]2,701 [133]7,109 [134]93.5 [135]2.4 [136]1 [137]5,947 [138]6016 [139]99 [140]121.13 [141]2 [142]2.36 [143]118 [144]192 [145]61 [146]93.8 [147]146 [148]
Uranium fission2,516,000 [149]63 [150]189 [151]61 [152]93.8 [153]
Thorium fission9,786,700 [154]
 Solar  152,033,485 [155]720,000 [156]990.5594.2 [157]1,694 [158] [159]28.9 [160]4.9 [161]32 [162]181 [163]
Photovoltaic (PV)56,940,000 [164]469,000 [165]505 [166]584.6 [167]244 [168]24.5 [169]24.7 [170]9 [171]950 [172]1331 [173]15.19 [174]23 [175]20 [176]25 [177]32 [178]44 [179]20 [180]74 [181]72 [182]
Low-temp thermal [183] [184]480 [185]9.6 [186]10 [187]21.2 [188]1.69 [189]95 [190]181 [191]155.4 [192]340.6 [193]
High-temp thermal40,296,000 [194]2,230,000 [195]5.5 [196] [197]8 [198]29.6 [199]11 [200]16 [201]4,798 [202]7191 [203]85.03 [204]20 [205]40 [206]126 [207]156 [208]
 Wind  1,611,111 [209]278,000 [210]620.0 [211]1,128 [212]1,128 [213]36 [214]12.60 [215]3.1 [216]28 [217]115 [218]37.7 [219]172.7 [220]
Onshore831,324 [221]119,500.0 [222]574.5 [223]790 [224]790 [225]35 [226]11 [227]12 [228]1,150 [229]1319 [230]26.22 [231]51 [232]0.02 [233]0.03 [234]28 [235]54 [236]29 [237]132 [238]56 [239]
Offshore534,360 [240]36,999.0 [241]24.8 [242]36.0 [243]36 [244]53 [245]23.53 [246]24 [247]3,025 [248]4356 [249]20 [250]109.54 [251]64 [252]115 [253]66 [254]164 [255]
High-altitude15,768,000 [256] [257]
 Hydro52,000 [258]10,000 [259]1,292 [260]4,200 [261]11,025 [262]39.1 [263]3.1 [264]1 [265]1,000 [266]2752 [267]15 [268]41.63 [269]0.003 [270]35 [271]71 [272]36 [273]69 [274]
 Ocean  2,040,000 [275]9,200 [276]0.532 [277]1.2 [278]1 [279]22.4 [280]70 [281]940 [282]
Wave29,500 [283]5,555 [284]1.0 [285]1 [286]30-35 [287]3,600 [288]15,300 [289]100 [290]500 [291]70 [292]940 [293]165 [294]198 [295]
Thermal conversion10,000 [296]32,000 [297]Not at a commercial scale [298]Not at a commercial scale97 [299]15,000 [300]30,000 [301]480 [302]950 [303]350 [304]650 [305]
Tidal/currents32,412 [306]0.5000 [307]1.2 [308]Not at a commercial scale35-42 [309]4,300 [310]8,700 [311]150 [312]530 [313]210 [314]470 [315]94 [316]
Salinity gradients5,177 [317]5,177 [318]0.000 [319]Not at a commercial scale [320]Not at a commercial scaleNot at a commercial level
 Geothermal394,200 [321]6,000 [322]39.3 [323]89.3 [324]157 [325]74.4 [326]5.1 [327]4 [328]2,680 [329]6,400113.29 [330] [331]1.16 [332]69 [333]112 [334]80 [335]230 [336]
 Biomass  408,611 [337]75,000 [338]551 [339]15,425 [340]15,424 [341]59.2 [342]9.6 [343]1 [344]2,668 [345]4,080 [346]53 [347]125.19 [348]0.005 [349]4.81 [350]55 [351]113 [352]73.2 [353]114.5 [354]
Wood and residues91,944 [355]13,611 [356]13,333 [357]13,333 [358]50.7 [359]6.79 [360]1 [361]200 [362]5,500 [363]55 [364]114 [365]73.2 [366]114.5 [367]
Waste33,333 [368]3,055 [369]14.5 [370]694.0 [371]694 [372]73.24 [373]0.23 [374]1 [375]55 [376]114 [377]73.2 [378]114.5 [379]
Energy crops4,157 [380]297.0 [381]19.0 [382]1,027.8 [383]1027.8 [384] [385]55 [386]114 [387]73.2 [388]114.5 [389]
Biogas19.5369.44369.4450190
 powercapacitydurationefficiencylifetimemobilitycostdensity
Storage TypePower Rating/Rated Power (MW, range)Rated Energy Capacity (MWh, range)Installed Capacity (GW)Storage DurationDischarge/cycle durationCycle/Roundtrip Efficiency (%, range)Lifetime (yrs)Lifetime (cycles)Mobile vs. StationaryCapital Cost ($/kWh)Fixed Operation + Maintenance ($/kW-yr)Variable Operation + Maintenance ($/kWh)Technical MaturityEnergy DensityPower Density
Mechanical
Pumped Hydro100-5000 [390]500-40000 [391]169 [392]h-days [393]1-24h [394]70-85 [395]30-60 [396]20,000-50,000 [397]Stationary50-100 [398]15.9 [399]0.00025 [400]Actual system proven in operational environment [401]0.2-2 Wh/L [402]0.5-1.5 W/L [403]
Compressed Air (CAES)100-300 [404]1000-20000 [405]0.64 [406]h-days [407]1-24h [408]41-75 [409]20-40 [410]>13,000 [411]Stationary2-50 [412]16.7 [413]0.00295 [414]System complete and qualified [415]~12 Wh/L [416]0.5-2 W/L [417]
Flywheel0.1-2 [418]0.0052-5 [419]0.93 [420]s-min [421]ms-15m [422]80-90 [423]15-20 [424]~100000 [425]Stationary200-500 [426]5.6 [427]0.00027 [428]Actual system proven in operational environment [429]20-80 Wh/L [430]~5000 W/L [431]
Electrochemical
Secondary Batteries
Lead-acid0-20 [432]<10 [433]0.08 [434]min-days [435]s-h [436]75-85 [437]3-12 [438]200-1800 [439]Mobile200-500 [440]50 [441]0.0002 [442]Actual system proven in operational environment [443]25-45 Wh/kg [444]180-200 W/kg [445]
Li-Ion0-0.1 [446]<200 [447]1.12 [448]min-days [449]m-h [450]90-97 [451]10-15 [452]1000-10000 [453]Mobile600-2500 [454]8.6 [455]0.00054 [456]Actual system proven in operational environment [457]150-210 Wh/kg [458]500-2000 W/kg [459]
NaS0.05-8 [460]0.1–244.8 [461]0.03 [462]h-days [463]s-h [464]75-90 [465]10~15 [466]2,500-4,500 [467]Mobile300-500 [468]80 [469]0.0004 [470]Actual system proven in operational environment [471]15-300 Wh/L [472]120-160 W/L [473]
Flow Battery
Redox Flow0.01-10 [474]0.1-120h-months [475]s-10h [476]65-85 [477]5~10 [478]10,000-13,000 [479]Mobile300-515 [480]10.6 [481]1.1 [482]Actual system proven in operational environment [483]10-35 Wh/kg166W/kg
Hybrid FlowNANA [484]NANANANANAMobileNANANAActual system proven in operational environment
Electrical
Capacitor/Supercapacitor0-0.05 [485]0.0025-0.02 [486]0.08 [487]s-h [488]ms-60m [489]60-65 [490]5~8 [491]50000 [492]Mobile300-2000 [493]1 [494]0-0.05 [495]Actual system proven in operational environment [496]2~30 [497]100000+ [498]
Super Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)0.1-10 [499]0.0008-0.015 [500]min-h [501]ms-8s [502]95-98 [503]15~20 [504]>100,000 [505]Stationary1000-10000 [506]18.5 [507]0.001 [508]Actual system proven in operational environment [509]~6 Wh/L [510]1000-4000 W/L [511]
Thermochemical
Solar Fuels0-10 [512]NAh-months [513]1~24 [514]~20-30 [515]NANAStationaryNANANATechnology demonstrated in relevant environment [516]500-10,000NA
Chemical
Hydrogen Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer0-50 [517]0.312 [518]0.015 [519]h-months [520]s-24h [521]34-44 [522]10-30 [523]20000 [524]Mobile470-925 [525]30 [526]NASystem complete and qualified [527]500-3000 [528]500+ [529]
Thermal
Sensible/latent heat storage0.1–300 [530]NAmin-months [531]1-24h [532]~30-60 [533]5~20 [534]NAStationary20-60 [535]NANAActual system proven in operational environment [536]80-500NA